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中國名片 | 湖南故事 山水洲城 快樂長沙之 你聽說過風蓬嶺漢墓中的金縷玉衣嗎?
The name card of China The story of Hunan:The landscape Island City The happy Changsha Have you ever heard of the golden wisp of jade in Fengpengling's Han tomb?
張思靜 Zhang Sijing [第3464期 2020-04-27發表]
長沙,國家歷史文化名城。1972年,這裏挖掘出土的馬王堆漢墓西漢女屍因歷經兩千餘年屍身不腐,皮膚紋縷清晰可見而震驚全世界。朗朗書聲之千年嶽麓書院,驚世沉船黑石號之銅官窯,中國最大的商代方尊之四羊方尊均是這座文化名城的歷史見證。而今天,我們要講述的是長沙城裏的另外一座漢墓,“黃腸題湊”,“金縷玉衣”……當《盜墓筆記》中的神奇之物真實呈現,讓我們一起去傾聽歷史帶給後人的故事。
Changsha, a famous historical and cultural city in China.  In 1972, all over the world was shocked by its Western Han female corpse from the Mawangdui Han Dynasty Tomb which had survived more than 2,000 years without decay and with visible skin lines . The sound of reading of the Millennium Yuelu Academy, the copper official kiln of the world-shaking shipwrecked Black Stone, and the four sheep square of the largest Shang Dynasty square of China are the historical witness of this cultural city.  But today, we want to talk about another Han tomb in Changsha City , "Huangchangticou", "Golden wisp of jade" ... When the magic thing which was written in the book <Time Raider> is real, let's listen the stories that history brings to future generations.
 

▲湖南省內的國家考古遺址公園共計6個,僅漢長沙國考古遺址公園尚未建成開放。
There are 6 National Archaeological Sites in Hunan Province, and only the Changsha Archaeological Site Park of Han Dynasty has not yet been completed and opened.
 
2005年12月,長沙市城郊的望城縣風蓬嶺,發現一座古墓,此墓墓內格局為“黃腸題湊”,喪葬規格為帝王級,高於馬王堆漢墓的侯級。墓坑呈現一個“中”字,全長30.3米,墓道長10.7米、寬5.6米,墓室長19.6米、寬14.8米,整個墓葬被巨大的方木分隔為3列9室,每個單獨的室具其單獨的功能,主要有車馬庫、樂器庫、糧庫、廚房、錢幣庫、武器庫、廁間等。
In December 2005, Fengpengling, Wangcheng County, on the suburbs of Changsha City, found an ancient tomb, the tomb pattern is "Huangchangticou". its funeral specifications are imperial, and its princely level is higher than the Mawangdui Han Dynasty Tomb. The tomb presents a Chinese word “中”, with total length of 30.3 meters, the tomb passage is 10.7 meters long and 5.6 meters wide, the tomb chamber is 19.6 meters long and 14.8 meters wide. The whole tomb is divided into three rows of nine chambers by huge square woods, each individual chamber has its own function, mainly had the carriage and horse store, musical instruments store, grain store, kitchen, coin store, weapons store, toilet room and so on.

▲漢長沙國考古遺址公園效果圖。
An effect map of the Changsha Archaeological Site Park of Han Dynasty.
 
在墓道的後端和後室,考古專家發現有兩個盜洞,從洞裏出土的青銅鎏金羊鎮、貼金箔玉佩、青瓷碗、青瓷雙唇壇等文物來看,專家推測該墓在隋唐時期被盜,然而,墓雖被盜卻依然出土了金縷玉衣殘片、金餅、青銅器、玉器、漆器等稀罕文物。
At the back end of the tomb and back rooms of the tomb,archaeologists found two cave holes, from the hole excavated bronze gilt sheep town, gold foil jade pendant, celadon bowl, celadon double lip altar and other artifacts, experts speculated that the tomb was stolen in the Tang Dynasty, however, the tomb was stolen but still unearthed the fragments of gold and jade clothes, Gold Cake, bronze, jade, lacquer and other rare cultural artifacts.
 
玉衣最早叫做玉匣(yù xiá)、玉柙(yù xiá),《後漢書》中曾記載:這是能使人屍身不朽的王侯葬服。它以四角鉆孔的玉片為料,金、銀、銅或絲織品為線,按照人體形狀做成衣服。
Jade was first called the jade box and jade suit , which was recorded in the Book of the ”Later Han” : This is a royal burial suit that can immortalize the body of a man . It is made of jade flakes drilled in four corners and threaded with gold, silver, copper or silk woven to make clothes according to the shape of the body.

 

▲長沙王印,長沙王璽
The king of Changsha ‘s seal, Changsha jade seal
 
金縷玉衣即玉衣,實為漢朝最高規格的喪葬殮服,在長江以北的地區出土過八次,而長江以南地區僅在衡陽曾出土過一件絲縷玉衣,該墓葬發現的金縷玉衣殘片是長江以南地區首次出土殘存的錯金玉片。當時的人們十分迷信玉能夠保持屍骨不朽, 更把玉作為一種高貴的禮器和身份的象徵,根據嚴格的漢朝制度,金縷玉衣只有皇帝能夠使用,但在漢朝各地諸侯王墓中,卻已經多次發現,證實了墓主享受了漢代帝王級的喪葬規格。
The Gold wisp jade clothing, that is, jade clothing, is the highest- specification funeral uniform of the Han Dynasty, in the area north of the Yangtze River has been excavated eight times, while the area south of the Yangtze River has only excavated a silk jade clothing in Henyang, the remains of the tomb found in the area south of the Yangtze River is the first unearthed of the wrong piece of gold jade. At that time, people were very superstitious that jade can keep the corpse and bones immortal, but also jade as a noble ritual and identity symbol. According to the strict Han Dynasty system, only the emperor could use the golden jade clothing, but it has been found many times in the tombs of lords and kings throughout the Han Dynasty, confirming that the tomb owners enjoyed the Han Dynasty emperor-level funeral specifications.
 
如此高級別的墓葬,墓主究竟是誰?在隨後出土的保存較好的幾十件漆器中,一漆耳杯上有“長沙王后家杯”和“張姬”的字樣,根據墓中出土的五銖錢以及該漆器的文字,考古專家判斷墓葬主人是西漢中晚期劉姓長沙王的王后,並推斷出既有王后墓,那周圍一定就有長沙王的陵墓。果然,經過勘探考古隊在距離王后墓幾公里的地方發現了第二座大墓,從墓葬形制判斷很可能就是某一位長沙王墓,並命名為“風蓬嶺2號墓”,但是根據相關規定,對於帝王陵墓不能主動發掘,所以考古隊並沒有發掘二號墓,只是做了登記。不幸的是,2009年該墓遭遇盜墓。
Who is the owner of such a high-level tomb? Among the dozens of well-preserved excavated later, a lacquer ear cup had the words "Changsha Queen's family Cup" and "Zhang Ji", according to the five baht coins excavated from the tomb and the words of the lacquerware, archaeologists judged that the tomb owner was the queen of King Changsha in the mid to late Western Han Dynasty, and deduced that there was a queen's tomb, which must be surrounded by the tomb of The Changsha King. Sure enough, after the exploration and archaeological team found a second large tomb a few kilometers away from the Queen's tomb ,from the judgment of burial system, it is likely to be the tomb of a certain Changsha King, and named "Feng Pengling tomb No.2", but according to the relevant regulations, the emperor's tomb cannot take the initiative to excavate, so the archaeological team did not excavate the second tomb, but did registration. Unfortunately, the tomb suffered a grave robbery in 2009.
 

▲神秘的漢代墓葬
Mysterious Han Dynasty Tomb
 
或許,留有遺憾的才叫歷史。2013年,西漢長沙王陵墓整體公布為全國重點文物保護單位,尚未發掘的二十一座西漢長沙王陵墓是一個巨大的、無與倫比的地下文物寶庫,得到了嚴格的保護。
Perhaps, it is history that has regrets. In 2013, the tomb of the King of Changsha in Xihan Dynasty was announced as a national key cultural heritage protection unit, and the 21 undiscovered tombs of the King of Changsha in West Han Dynasty are a huge and unparalleled treasure trove of underground cultural relics, which has been strictly protected.
 
(圖:長沙市文化旅遊廣電體育局)
(Picture: Changsha City Culture, Tourism, Radio and Television Sports Bureau)
 


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