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中國名片 | 湖南故事 益山益水 益美益陽之 茶馬古道,追尋中國南方最後的馬幫足跡
The name card of China,The story of Hunan:The landscape of Yiyang The beauty of Yiyang,The tea-horse ancient road traces the last footprints of the horse gang in southern China
張思靜Zhang Sijing [第3464期 2020-04-27發表]
你或許聽說過益陽的黑茶,也品嘗過它獨有濃郁的茶香,你可知道在中國黑茶之鄉的益陽安化,有一條延續千年的茶馬古道,在這裏,銅鈴悠悠,馬蹄聲聲,有着中國南方最後的馬幫足跡……
You may have heard of the black tea in Yiyang, and also tasted its unique tea aroma. Do you know that in Anhua, Yiyang, the hometown of black tea in China, there is an ancient road of tea and horse lasting for thousands of years. Here, the sound of ringing bells and the thump of hooves, with the last footprints of horse gang in southern China...
 

▲茶馬古道上美麗寧靜的山中小鎮。
The beautiful and peaceful town in the mountains which on the ancient tea-horse road
 
茶馬古道是指唐宋以來至民國時期,連接內地產茶區和西北、西南邊疆少數民族地區,進行茶馬交易的交通要道,中國境內有兩條茶馬古道,一條在雲南,一條在湖南益陽。益陽安化是古代有名的茶葉之鄉,產茶歷史非常悠久,唐宋時期,茶葉產量譽甲天下,明時期,所產雲霧茶,芙蓉茶,馳名中外,成為朝廷貢品。
The ancient tea-horse road is a major transportation route for tea-horse trade from the Tang and Song Dynasties to the republican period. The road is connects the tea producing areas of the mainland with the ethnic minority areas of the northwest and southwest frontier. There are two tea-horse ancient roads in China, one in Yunnan province and the other in Yiyang, Hunan province. Anhua, Yiyang is a famous ancient tea hometown, the history of tea production was very long, during the Tang and Song Dynasties, tea production was world-renowned, Ming Dynasty, the production of Cloud-fog tea, Furong tea, was well-known at home and abroad and became the imperial tribute.
 

▲安化千兩茶仍採用古樸的方法製作。
Anhua Qianliang tea is still made by the primitive method
 
在安化的崇山峻嶺和山澗溪流之間,神秘的茶馬古道背後,還有着一個流傳已久的故事。話說明朝嘉靖年間,西藏大喇嘛常常率幾百人進京禮佛朝貢,受到嘉靖皇帝的隆重接待。回藏時,西藏大喇嘛帶回嘉靖的許多賞賜,其中佔大頭的是四川茶葉。但喇嘛們對賞賜的四川茶葉不太滿意,就自己繞道湖廣收購茶葉,發現湖南安化的黑茶最合他們的口味,茶葉香濃,且物美價廉。
Among the mountains and streams of Anhua, there is a story that has been told for a long time behind the mysterious tea-horse ancient road. During the Jiajing reign of the Ming Dynasty, the great buddhist of Tibet often led hundreds of people to the capital to pay tribute to emperor and pay respect for Buddha.They received the grand reception from the emperor Jiajing. When they returned to Tibet, they brought back many gifts from emperor Jiajing, among which Sichuan tea were in the majority. However, the monks were not satisfied with the Sichuan tea, so they took a detour to Hunan and Guangdong to buy tea. They found that the black tea from Anhua in Hunan was the most suitable for their taste. The tea was fragrant with high quality and inexpensive.
 

▲沿青石板鋪就的古道緩緩而行,歷史的足跡在眼前展開。
A slow walk along the ancient road paved with green stone, the footprints of history is in front of the eyes.
 
隨着黑茶產銷的興盛,商家為了收購和運輸茶葉的便利,在安化縣境內集資修建茶馬專道,這些道路翻山越嶺,以青石板鋪就,沿途建風雨廊橋,茶亭,拴馬柱等供歇息之用,綿延數百里。馬幫和茶馬古道凝聚和集中了物流和人流,在茶馬古道經過的好些水路、陸路交匯點,慢慢而自然的形成了集鎮、驛站,以方便馬幫和過往商賈行人買賣商品,住宿歇足。高城峒、江南古鎮、永錫橋、洞市老街、唐家觀、新化圳上、白溪、隆回灘頭、寶慶這些有名的老市鎮,便是隨“茶馬古道”誕生、發展而來的。
With the prosperity of black tea production and marketing, in order to purchase and transport tea conveniently, merchants in Anhua County raised funds to build special tea and horse road. These roads were over the mountains, paved with quartzites, along the way to build gallery bridge, tea kiosks, hitching post to tie the horse and so on for people to rest, stretching for hundreds of miles. The horse gang and the tea and horse ancient road converged and focused the logistics and human traffic. At the intersection of waterways and landways along the ancient tea-horse road, towns and courier stations were slowly and naturally formed to facilitate the trading of goods by the horse gang and the merchants and pedestrians, and to rest and stay. Gaochengdong, Jiangnan ancient town, Yongxi bridge, Dongshi Old Street, Tangjiaguan, Singhuazhen, Baixi, Longhui beach and Baoqing, these famous old towns, were born and developed with the "tea-horse ancient road".

 

▲如今的安化,再次因黑茶吸引世界目光,青山、綠水、黑茶,相得益彰,美不勝收。
Nowadays, Anhua attracts the world's attention again for its dark tea. The green hills, green waters and dark tea complement each other and are extremely beautiful.
 
而益陽安化江南鎮茶馬古道風景區內,至今還保留着最為完整的一段茶馬古道。每逢山下市集墟日,山裏人用馬匹馱着木材、山貨、茶葉等去山下的市集換取生活物資,成群結隊,蔚為壯觀,也正因如此,安化縣內保留有中國南方最後一隻馬幫。
The most complete section of the ancient tea and horse road is still preserved in the scenic area of Jiangnan Town, Anhua, Yiyang. On the days of the market under the mountains, people from the mountains would take wood, mountain goods and tea on horseback to the market in exchange for living materials. The crowds were spectacular. For this reason, the last horse gang in south China was preserved in Anhua.
 

▲安化茶馬古道,尚存有中國南方最後的馬幫足跡。
Anhua tea-horse ancient road, still has the last horse gang footprint in south China.
 
如今,茶馬古道上延續千年的故事已曲終人散,但安化馬幫一直沒有完全消失,近年來,隨着全域旅遊的發展,益陽“馬幫遊”成為了國內知名的旅遊品牌,茶馬古道上歷歷在目的馬蹄印,是歷史最好的訴說。
Nowadays, the story of the tea-horse ancient road lasting for a thousand years has come to an end, but the Anhua horse band has not completely disappeared. In recent years, with the development of tourism, Yiyang "Horse Gand Tour" has become a well-known tourism brand in China. The horseshoe footprints vividly seen on the ancient tea-horse road, is the best telling of history.
 
歲月如歌,茶馬古道已湮沒在歷史煙雲中,然而,穿過歷史的塵埃,安化馬幫在新時代重放異彩,成為了代表益陽旅遊資源和地域文化的重要角色。
The years such as song, tea horse ancient road has been buried in the history, however, through the dust of history, Anhua horse gang in reborn in the new era and has become an important role on behalf of Yiyang tourism resources and regional culture. (Anhua County Party Committee Publicity Department also contributed to this article)
 
(安化縣委宣傳部對本文亦有貢獻,本文圖片由安化縣委宣傳部提供。) 
(Picture: Anhua County Party Committee Publicity Department)


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